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  • Discuss with your counselor the influence that EIGHT of the following people or events had on the history of medicine:
    1. Hippocrates
    2. The invention of Gunpowder
    3. William Harvey
    4. Antoine van Leeuwenhoek
    5. Edward Jenner
    6. Florence Nightingale
    7. Louis Pasteur
    8. Gregor Mendel
    9. Joseph Lister
    10. Robert Koch
    11. Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen
    12. Marie and Pierre Curie
    13. Walter Reed
    14. Karl Landsteiner
    15. Alexander Fleming
    16. Jonas Salk
  • Explain the Hippocratic Oath to your counselor, and compare to the original version to a more modern one. Discuss to whom those subscribing to the original version of the oath owe the greatest allegiance.
  • Discuss the health care provider-patient relationship with your counselor, and the importance of such a relationship in the delivery of quality care to the patient. Describe the role of confidentiality in this relationship.
  • Do the following:
    1. Describe the roles the following people play in the delivery of health care in your state. (Note: Not all may exist in your state.)
      • Physician
      • Chiropractor
      • Optometrist
      • Podiatrist
      • Pharmacist
      • Psychologist
      • Physician's assistant
      • Nurse practitioner
      • Nurse-midwife
      • Registered Nurse
      • Licensed vocational/practical nurse
      • Medical assistant
      • Emergency medical technician
      • Medical laboratory technologist
      • Radiologic technologist
      • Physical therapist
      • Occupational therapist
      • Respiratory therapist
    2. Describe the educational and licensing requirements for five of those in 4(a) --other than 4(a)(1)- - practicing health care in your state.
    1. Tell what is meant by the term "primary care" with regard to a medical specialty. Briefly describe the types of work done by physicians in the following "core" specialties:
      • Internal medicine*
      • Family practice
      • Obstetrics/gynecology*
      • Pediatrics
      • Psychiatry
      • Surgery
    2. Describe the additional educational requirements for those specialties.
    1. Briefly describe the types of work performed by physicians in FIVE of the following specialties or subspecialties:
      • Allergy/immunology
      • Anesthesiology
      • Cardiovascular disease
      • Colon and rectal surgery
      • Dermatology
      • Emergency Medicine
      • Endocrinology and metabolism
      • Gastroenterology
      • Geriatric medicine
      • Hematology/oncology
      • Infectious disease
      • Nephrology
      • Neurological surgery
      • Neurology
      • Nuclear medicine
      • Opthalmology
      • Orthopedic surgery
      • Otolaryngology/head and neck surgery
      • Pathology
      • Physical medicine and rehabilitation/sports medicine
      • Plastic, reconstructive, and maxillofacial surgery.
      • Preventive medicine
      • Radiology
      • Rheumatology
      • Thoracic/cardiothoracic surgery
      • Urology
      • Vascular surgery
      • Describe the additional educational requirements for the five specialties or subspecialties you chose in 6(a).
      1. Visit a physician's office**, preferably one who delivers "primary care." (This may be that of your counselor.) Discuss the components of a medical history and physical examination (an official BSA health form may be used to guide this discussion), and become familiar with the instruments used.
      2. Describe the characteristics of a good diagnostic test to screen for disease (e.g. routine blood pressure measurement). Explain briefly why diagnostic tests are not perfect.
      3. Show how to take a blood pressure reading and a pulse reading.
    2. Do the following:
      1. Discuss the roles medical societies, the insurance industry, and the government play in influencing the practice of medicine in the United States.
      2. Briefly tell how your state monitors the quality of health care within its borders, and how it provides care to those who do not have health insurance.
    3. Compare and discuss with your counselor the health care delivery systems in the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
    4. Serve as a volunteer at a health-related event or facility in your community (e.g. Blood drive, "health fair", blood pressure screening, etc.) approved by your counselor.

* "Primary care" specialties

** If this cannot be arranged, demonstrate to your counselor that you understand the components of a medical history and physical, and discuss the instruments involved.

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